Significant delay between a crime and an identification parade can discredit any identification made.
In-court identification is unsafe, particularly when the witness is examined after many other prosecution witnesses and has had opportunity to see the accused in the dock.
An identification parade is unsafe if it is conducted with unexplained delay, it is a joint parade for multiple accused, and the witness does not identify the accused with respect to a specific role.
Joint identification parades for multiple accused and parades held after the witness has already seen the accused are unlawful, and render a subsequent in court identification without value.
an identification parade is required (and in-court identification is insufficient) whenever a witness saw the culprit only fleetingly, and such parade is unsafe if the accused was shown to the witness before the procedure began and if the Magistrate did not certify that others in the parade were of similar appearance.